Single cell transcriptomics has revolutionized our understanding of basic biology and disease. Since transcript levels often do not correlate with protein expression, it is crucial to complement transcriptomics approaches with proteome analyses at single cell resolution. Despite continuous technological improvements in sensitivity, mass spectrometry-based single cell proteomics ultimately faces the challenge of reproducibly comparing the protein expression profiles of thousands of individual cells. Here, we combine two hitherto opposing analytical strategies, DIA and Tandem-Mass-Tag (TMT)-multiplexing, to generate highly reproducible, quantitative proteome signatures from ultra-low input samples. We developed a novel, identification-independent proteomics data-analysis pipeline that allows to quantitatively compare DIA-TMT proteome signatures across hundreds of samples independent of their biological origin to identify cell types and single protein knockouts. These proteome signatures overcome the need to impute quantitative data due to accumulating detrimental amounts of missing data in standard multi-batch TMT experiments. We validate our approach using integrative data analysis of different human cell lines and standard database searches for knockouts of defined proteins. Our data establish a novel and reproducible approach to markedly expand the numbers of proteins one detects from ultra-low input samples.
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