Negative impact of intraoperative blood loss on long-term outcome after curative gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: exploratory analysis of the JCOG1001 phase III trial

Gastric Cancer. 2022 Mar;25(2):459-467. doi: 10.1007/s10120-021-01266-6. Epub 2021 Nov 19.


Background: Recent retrospective studies have shown that increased intraoperative blood loss (IBL) during curative gastrectomy for patients with advanced gastric cancer is a negative prognostic indicator for recurrence. However, there are no reliable reports assessing this with a large-scale prospective cohort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of IBL on long-term outcomes using data from the JCOG1001 phase III trial, which was designed to determine if bursectomy led to improved survival vs. nonbursectomy in patients with cT3/4a gastric cancer.

Methods: This study included 1203 of the 1204 patients enrolled in the JCOG1001. From the tertiles of IBL (196 ml, 400 ml), we divided the patients into three groups: IBL < 200 ml representing small blood loss (SBL, n = 404), 200 ml ≤ IBL < 400 ml representing medium blood loss (MBL, n = 393), and IBL ≥ 400 ml representing large blood loss (LBL, n = 406). The impact of IBL on relapse-free survival (RFS) was evaluated with univariable comparisons and multivariable Cox regression analyses.

Results: Three-year RFS after SBL, MBL, and LBL was 81.7%, 74.8%, and 70.6%, respectively. Multivariable analysis identified IBL, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, pT, pN, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy as independent predictors of RFS. Compared with SBL as a reference, the hazard ratios of MBL and LBL were 1.461 (P = 0.012) and 1.520 (P = 0.009), respectively.

Conclusions: Based on the analysis of data from a large-scale prospective study, an IBL of ≥ 200 ml after curative surgery for patients with cT3/4a gastric cancer was an independent predictor of reduced RFS.

Keywords: Blood loss; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Surgical.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III

MeSH terms

  • Blood Loss, Surgical
  • Gastrectomy
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / surgery