Mesenchymal stem cells therapy: A promising method for the treatment of uterine scars and premature ovarian failure

Tissue Cell. 2022 Feb;74:101676. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2021.101676. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Abstract

Both intrauterine adhesions (IUA) and premature ovarian failure (POF) have plagued women all over the world for a long time. It is well known that all invasive operations involving the uterus can disrupt its structural and functional integrity to a varying degree, which inevitably lead to abnormal scar formation, such as IUA, also known as Asherman's syndrome with symptoms like hypomenorrhea or infertility. Another reproductive disorder that causes infertility is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) or POF, which is a degenerative phenomenon in the ovary among women under the age of 40. In recent years, various types of stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in reproductive medicine due to their properties, such as immunoregulation, anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and trophicity. However, the extensive clinical application of cell therapy is impeded by their safety, cost, and manufacturing. In this review, we sought to summarize the recent advances in using different types of MSCs in treating uterine scars and POF. We also describe several biological pathways and molecules involved in animal studies and clinical application; extracellular vesicles secreted by MSCs may be a promising attractive tool to ensure the treatment of infertility by restoring normal reproductive function.

Keywords: Exosomes; Infertility; Intrauterine adhesions (IUA); Premature ovarian failure (POF); Stem-cell therapy; Uterine scars.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cicatrix / metabolism
  • Cicatrix / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Ovary / metabolism*
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / metabolism
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / therapy*
  • Uterus / metabolism*