The ability of crude extracellular enzyme produced by the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans AL7-1 to lyse living cells of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556, 10557 and 10558 was examined. This enzyme showed lytic activity of living cells and cell walls of only Strep. sanguis ATCC 10558 strain and severed at random the long chains of this strain of living cells. Early log phase cells of this strain were more sensitive to this lytic enzyme than were late-log phase cells. In view of these results, the relationship between this lytic enzyme from Strep. mutans and a decrease in the number of serotype III strains of Strep. sanguis in dental plaque is discussed.