Bio-efficacy of Soil Actinomycetes and an Isolated Molecule 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid from Nonomuraea sp. Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2021 Nov 22. doi: 10.1007/s12010-021-03766-8. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Vector-borne diseases such as filariasis and dengue that contribute significantly to disease burden, death, poverty, and social frailty are still a major public healthcare problem worldwide. Currently, synthetic chemicals have been used in mosquito control programs. However, repeated use of chemical insecticides causes environmental pollution and harmful effects on non-target organisms. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly sources from biological source are urgently needed to manage mosquitoes. In this respect, the present study was aimed to evaluate mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activities of 22 crude extracts of soil actinomycetes on Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti and to identify the active molecule. Briefly, the crude ethyl acetate extract and fractions were tested at 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 ppm and 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 ppm concentrations on larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The larval and pupal mortality was assessed after 24 h of treatment. Among the 22 isolates screened, Nonomuraea sp. VAS-16 exhibited significant larvicidal and pupicidal activities against the tested mosquito species. Among the 18 fractions screened, fraction-6 showed strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities with the LC50 and LC90 values of 9.1, 18.7, 9.82, and 22.85 ppm against the larvae and LC50 and LC90 values of 10.5, 23.1, 12.3, and 24.13 ppm against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Fascinatingly, the isolated compound 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid from fraction-6 at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 ppm concentration recorded lower LC50 and LC90 values of 4.27, 14.90, 4.67, and 11.90 ppm against the larvae and LC50 and LC90 values of 4.58, 12.06, 5.36, and 13.07 ppm against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. On the other hand, the compound recorded less ovicidal activity of 11.0% and 10.3% at 2 ppm against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The present study clearly shows that the crude extract and the compound from Nonomuraea sp. VAS-16 can be used as an effective biopesticide in integrated mosquito management program.

Keywords: 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Larvicidal activity; Nonomuraea sp. VAS-16; Pupicidal activity.