Objectives: To assess the clinical outcomes of prostate cancer patients treated with salvage radiotherapy (SRT) for locoregional clinical recurrence (CR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: Records of 60 patients with macroscopic locoregional recurrence after prostatectomy and referrals for SRT were retrospectively investigated in the multi-institutional database. The median radiation dose was 70.2 Gy. Biochemical failure was defined as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ nadir + 2 or initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for increased PSA. Results: Median recurrent tumor size was 1.1 cm and pre-radiotherapy PSA level was 0.4 ng/ml. At a median follow-up of 83.1-month after SRT, 7-year biochemical failure-free survival (BCFFS), locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were 67.0%, 89.7%, 83.6%, and 91.2%, respectively. Higher Gleason's scores were associated with unfavorable BCFFS, DMFS, and OS. Pre-SRT PSA ≥0.5 ng/ml predicted worse BCFFS, LRFFS, and DMFS. In multivariate analyses, a Gleason's score of 8 to 10 was associated with decreased BCFFS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-8.74, P = .031) and OS (HR 17.72, 95% CI 1.75-179.64, P = .015), and combined ADT decreased the risks of distant metastasis (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.92, P = .039). Two patients (3.3%) experienced late grade 3 urinary toxicity. Conclusions: SRT for locoregional CR after RP achieved favorable outcomes with acceptable long-term toxicities. Higher Gleason's scores and pre-radiotherapy PSA level were unfavorable prognostic variables. Combined ADT may decrease the risks of metastases.
Keywords: prostatectomy; prostatic neoplasms; radiotherapy; recurrence.