Clostridioides difficile spore germination: initiation to DPA release

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2022 Feb:65:101-107. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2021.11.001. Epub 2021 Nov 19.


Germination by Clostridioides difficile spores is an essential step in pathogenesis. Spores are metabolically dormant forms of bacteria that resist severe conditions. Work over the last 10 years has elucidated that C. difficile spores germinate thorough a novel pathway. This review summarizes our understanding of C. difficile spore germination and the factors involved in germinant recognition, cortex degradation and DPA release.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Clostridioides
  • Clostridioides difficile*
  • Spores, Bacterial


  • Bacterial Proteins