Fungal canker agents in apple production hubs of Iran

Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 22;11(1):22646. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-02245-8.

Abstract

To identify apple canker casual agents and evaluate their pathogenicity and virulence in apple production hubs including West Azarbaijan, Isfahan and Tehran provinces; samples were collected from symptomatic apple trees. Pathogenic isolates on the detached branches were identified as Cytospora cincta, Diplodia bulgarica, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and Eutypa cf. lata. E. cf. lata was reported as a potential apple canker causal agent in Iran for the first time based on the pathogenicity test on the detached branches, whereas it caused no canker symptoms in apple trees until 6 months after inoculation. Currently, E. cf. lata seems to be adapted to a single city. C. cincta, D. bulgarica and N. dimidiatum caused canker symptoms in apple trees. "C. cincta" and also "C. cincta and N. dimidiatum" were the most widespread and aggressive apple canker species, respectively, associated with apple canker in Iran. Therefore, they are considered to be the main threat to apple production in Iran and should be carefully monitored. Disease progress curve, area under the disease progress curve and optimum temperatures were determined for mentioned species. It is concluded that the establishment of each species occurs in appropriate areas and times in terms of the optimum temperature for their growth.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / methods
  • Area Under Curve
  • Ascomycota
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Iran
  • Malus / microbiology*
  • Models, Statistical
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Species Specificity
  • Temperature
  • Virulence

Supplementary concepts

  • Cytospora cincta
  • Diplodia bulgarica
  • Eutypa lata
  • Neoscytalidium dimidiatum