The full-length receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand pattern recognition receptor. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a RAGE ligand of damage-associated molecular patterns that elicits inflammatory reactions. The shedded isoform of RAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), a splice variant, are soluble isoforms (sRAGE) that act as organ-protective decoys. However, the pathophysiologic roles of RAGE/sRAGE in acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unclear. We found that AKI was more severe, with enhanced renal tubular damage, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis, in mice lacking both RAGE and sRAGE than in wild-type control mice. Using murine tubular epithelial cells (TECs), we demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of HMGB1 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), whereas RAGE and esRAGE expressions were paradoxically decreased. Moreover, the addition of recombinant sRAGE canceled hypoxia-induced inflammation and promoted cell viability in cultured TECs. sRAGE administration prevented renal tubular damage in models of ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI and of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis. These results suggest that sRAGE is a novel therapeutic option for AKI.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury; High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); Ischemia and reperfusion; Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE); Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE).
© 2021. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.