Background: The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) mediates Ca2+ reuptake into SR and thereby promotes cardiomyocyte relaxation, whereas the ryanodine receptor (RYR) mediates Ca2+ release from SR and triggers contraction. Ca2+/CaMKII (CaM [calmodulin]-dependent protein kinase II) regulates activities of SERCA2 through phosphorylation of PLN (phospholamban) and RYR through direct phosphorylation. However, the mechanisms for CaMKIIδ anchoring to SERCA2-PLN and RYR and its regulation by local Ca2+ signals remain elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate CaMKIIδ anchoring and regulation at SERCA2-PLN and RYR.
Methods: A role for AKAP18δ (A-kinase anchoring protein 18δ) in CaMKIIδ anchoring and regulation was analyzed by bioinformatics, peptide arrays, cell-permeant peptide technology, immunoprecipitations, pull downs, transfections, immunoblotting, proximity ligation, FRET-based CaMKII activity and ELISA-based assays, whole cell and SR vesicle fluorescence imaging, high-resolution microscopy, adenovirus transduction, adenoassociated virus injection, structural modeling, surface plasmon resonance, and alpha screen technology.
Results: Our results show that AKAP18δ anchors and directly regulates CaMKIIδ activity at SERCA2-PLN and RYR, via 2 distinct AKAP18δ regions. An N-terminal region (AKAP18δ-N) inhibited CaMKIIδ through binding of a region homologous to the natural CaMKII inhibitor peptide and the Thr17-PLN region. AKAP18δ-N also bound CaM, introducing a second level of control. Conversely, AKAP18δ-C, which shares homology to neuronal CaMKIIα activator peptide (N2B-s), activated CaMKIIδ by lowering the apparent Ca2+ threshold for kinase activation and inducing CaM trapping. While AKAP18δ-C facilitated faster Ca2+ reuptake by SERCA2 and Ca2+ release through RYR, AKAP18δ-N had opposite effects. We propose a model where the 2 unique AKAP18δ regions fine-tune Ca2+-frequency-dependent activation of CaMKIIδ at SERCA2-PLN and RYR.
Conclusions: AKAP18δ anchors and functionally regulates CaMKII activity at PLN-SERCA2 and RYR, indicating a crucial role of AKAP18δ in regulation of the heartbeat. To our knowledge, this is the first protein shown to enhance CaMKII activity in heart and also the first AKAP (A-kinase anchoring protein) reported to anchor a CaMKII isoform, defining AKAP18δ also as a CaM-KAP.
Keywords: calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2; calmodulin; myocytes, cardiac; phospholamban; ryanodine receptor; sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-transporting ATPases.