An open-label, randomized, single intravenous dosing study to investigate the effect of fixed-dose combinations of tenofovir/lamivudine or atazanavir/ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir in Ugandan healthy volunteers (RemTLAR)

Trials. 2021 Nov 23;22(1):831. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05752-1.


Background: Remdesivir is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic with activity against several viruses that cause emerging infectious diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore how commonly utilized antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine [TDF/3TC] and atazanavir/ritonavir [ATV/r]) influence plasma and intracellular concentrations of remdesivir.

Methods: This is an open-label, randomized, fixed sequence single intravenous dosing study to assess pharmacokinetic interactions between remdesivir and TDF/3TC (Study A, crossover design) or TDF/3TC plus ATV/r (Study B). Healthy volunteers satisfying study entry criteria will be enrolled in the study and randomized to either Study A; N=16 (Sequence 1 or Sequence 2) or Study B; N=8. Participants will receive standard adult doses of antiretroviral therapy for 7 days and a single 200mg remdesivir infusion administered over 60 min. Pharmacokinetic blood sampling will be performed relative to the start of remdesivir infusion; predose (before the start of remdesivir infusion) and 30 min after the start of remdesivir infusion. Additional blood samples will be taken at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after the end of remdesivir infusion.

Discussion: This study will characterize the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir from a typical African population in whom clinical use is anticipated. Furthermore, this study will deliver pharmacokinetic datasets for remdesivir drug concentrations and demographic characteristics which could support pharmacometric approaches for simulation of remdesivir treatment regimens in patients concurrently using tenofovir/lamivudine and/or atazanavir/ritonavir.

Trial registration: NCT04385719 . Registered 13 May 2020.

Keywords: Atazanavir; COVID-19; Drug-drug interactions; Ebola; HIV; Lamivudine; Remdesivir; Ritonavir; Tenofovir.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives
  • Adult
  • Alanine / analogs & derivatives
  • Anti-HIV Agents* / adverse effects
  • Atazanavir Sulfate / adverse effects
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine* / adverse effects
  • Oligopeptides
  • Pyridines / adverse effects
  • Ritonavir / adverse effects
  • Tenofovir / adverse effects
  • Uganda


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Oligopeptides
  • Pyridines
  • Lamivudine
  • remdesivir
  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Atazanavir Sulfate
  • Tenofovir
  • Ritonavir
  • Alanine

Associated data