Simultaneous detection of dual biomarkers using hierarchical MoS 2 nanostructuring and nano-signal amplification-based electrochemical aptasensor toward accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer

Biosens Bioelectron. 2021 Nov 16;197:113797. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2021.113797. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Accurate and reliable quantification of tumor biomarkers in clinical samples is of vital importance for early stage diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, a poor specificity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing alone fostering overdetection and overtreatment, remains a great controversy in prostate cancer (PCa) screening. Here we report an electrochemical aptasensor using hierarchical MoS2 nanostructuring and SiO2 nano-signal amplification for simultaneous detection of dual PCa biomarkers, PSA and sarcosine, to enhance the diagnostic performance of PCa. In this strategy, hierarchical flower-like MoS2 nanostructures as functional interface accelerated intermolecular accessibility and improved DNA hybridization efficiency. Moreover, the spherical SiO2 nanoprobe that conjugated with both electroactive tags and DNA probes, allowed effective electrochemical signal amplification. By deliberately designing different hybridization modes, we individually implemented the optimization of PSA and sarcosine sensing system. Based on this, simultaneous determination of PSA and sarcosine was achieved, with limit of detection (LOD) down to 2.5 fg/mL and 14.4 fg/mL, respectively, as well as excellent selectivity. More importantly, using this approach, we could directly differentiate cancer patients with healthy ones for clinical serum samples. The ultrasensitive biosensor provides single-step analysis with simple operation and a small sample volume (∼12 μL), shedding new light on accurate diagnosis and early-detection of cancer in clinical applications.

Keywords: Electrochemical aptasensor; MoS(2) nanoflower; Nano-signal amplification; PSA and Sarcosine; Prostate cancer; Simultaneous detection.