Oncological Outcomes of Transoral Laryngeal Microsurgery with Fiber-Optic Diode Laser for Early Glottic Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

Eur Surg Res. 2021 Nov 24;1-13. doi: 10.1159/000519718. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Backgroud/Objectives: Transoral laser laryngeal microsurgery (LTLM) has been widely used in the treatment of early-stage glottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) for the past few decades. Although T stage, tumor grade, anterior commissure involvement, type of cordectomy, positive surgical margin, and postoperative additional therapies were accused as the prognostic factors for recurrence, there is still controversy about these data in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological results of our patients with early glottic LSCC treated with LTLM as a single-modality therapy in a single-center study.

Methods: Patients with early-stage (Tis-1-2/N0) glottic LSCC who underwent LTLM as a primary treatment from 2011 to 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathological factors and oncologic outcomes were analyzed.

Results: One hundred and sixty-one patients were enrolled in this study. The 5-year overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS), disease-free (DFS), and laryngectomy-free survival rates were 84.5%, 97.9%, 79.2%, and 93.5%, respectively. The most common stage, histopathological type, and type of endoscopic cordectomy were T1 stage, well-differentiated cancer, and type 2 cordectomy, respectively. A positive surgical margin was defined in 20 (12.4%) patients. There was a significant relationship between histopathological grade and positive surgical margins (p = 0.038). OS and DSS rates of "wait and see" modality were lower, while DFS of radiotherapy was lower than that of other treatment modalities in patients with positive surgical margins, but the differences were not statistically significant. Nineteen (11.8%) patients had a recurrence. DSS was statistically significantly lower in patients with recurrence (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of our study showed that anterior commissure involvement, surgical margin positivity, and higher T stage statistically did not reduce survival rates in early-stage LSCC patients treated with LTLM. As the histopathological grade of the tumor worsens, the risk of surgical margin positivity increases. RT may have a negative effect on recurrence and organ preservation in the additional treatment of patient with positive surgical margins.

Keywords: Glottis; Laryngeal carcinoma; Laryngoscopic surgery; Laser surgery; Squamous cell carcinoma; Survival analysis.