Patterns of smoking and menopause-specific quality of life: smoking duration matters more

Behav Med. 2021 Nov 25;1-11. doi: 10.1080/08964289.2021.1958739. Online ahead of print.


Evidence about the association of quantity of cigarettes smoked and duration of smoking with quality of life in menopause is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking patterns and menopause-specific quality of life. This cross-sectional study included 513 consecutive midlife women at two primary health care centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Collection of data was carried out from February 2014 to January 2015, using three questionnaires: socio-epidemiologic questionnaire, Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire (MENQOL) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Women reported their smoking status (smoker, former smoker, non-smoker), the length of time spent smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked per day. There was no difference in proportions of ever smokers compared to never smokers. However, there were more women who were current nonsmokers than current smokers. A linear regression model, adjusted for residency district, relationship status, educational level, employment, drinking alcohol, having exercise, age and BDI, showed that longer duration of smoking, but not number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with worse Physical domain and total MENQOL score. Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis showed that menopausal symptoms as measured by total MENQOL score were significantly less bothersome for women who smoked less than 10 years and significantly more intense in women who smoked 21 to 30 years. Midlife women should be encouraged to quit smoking as soon as possible, preferably before menopause. Strategies to prevent and quit smoking should be prioritized at all levels of health care delivery for women.Supplemental data for this article is available online at.

Keywords: Menopause; quality of life; smoking; women.