Background: The efficacy of hetrombopag in Chinese patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III trial (NCT03222843).
Objective: This study aimed to report comprehensive data on a ≤6-week dose tapering to withdrawal (Stage 3) and an additional 24-week long-term extension period (Stage 4) in this phase III trial.
Patients/methods: Patients who fulfilled the screening criteria were eligible to enter Stage 3 or 4. During Stage 3, hetrombopag was gradually tapered to withdrawal. During Stage 4, hetrombopag treatment was initiated at 2.5, 3.75, 5, or 7.5 mg once daily. The efficacy endpoints during Stage 3 or 4 and the safety profile during the entire treatment period were reported.
Results: Among 194 patients who entered Stage 3, 171 (88.1%) relapsed. The median time to the first relapse since the start of Stage 3 was 15.0 days (95% CI, 14.0-16.0). In Stage 4, 144 (42.5%) patients responded at ≥75% of their assessments and 254 (74.9%) patients achieved platelet count ≥30 × 109 /L at least once, which was at least twice their baseline platelet count in the hetrombopag group (n = 339). The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (53.1%), thrombocytopenia (27.1%), and urinary tract infection (21.2%) in the hetrombopag group.
Conclusion: The majority of patients who experienced dose tapering to withdrawal experienced a relapse. Long-term treatment with hetrombopag was effective in increasing and maintaining platelet count within the desired range in Chinese adults with ITP. Hetrombopag was well tolerated.
Keywords: extension period; hetrombopag; immune thrombocytopenia; platelet response; thrombopoietin receptor agonist; withdrawal.
© 2021 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.