Report of two children with global developmental delay in association with de novo TLK2 variant and literature review

Am J Med Genet A. 2022 Mar;188(3):931-940. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62580. Epub 2021 Nov 25.


We describe clinical details, including novel findings, of two further children with the newly defined TLK2-related disorder. One patient was recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Delay (DDD) Study to identify underlying etiology of global developmental delay. The other was detected on whole-exome sequencing as part of second line investigations following normal microarray. Both patients were found to have de novo heterozygous pathogenic TLK2 variants. A novel c.6del p.(Glu3Lysfs*) loss-of-function frameshift variant was found in Patient 1. A c.1121+1G>A splice-donor variant was detected in Patient 2. TLK2-related neurodevelopmental disorder is a specific syndrome that has been recently described. Global developmental delay, behavioral problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and typical facial dysmorphism are common features. Neuropsychiatric disorders, ophthalmic, musculoskeletal and cranial abnormalities, as well as short stature, have also all been described. The novel findings we describe include sleep disturbance, nondifferentiation of lateral semi-circular canals (where asymmetric semi-circular canals were a feature in the previous cohort), vesico-ureteric reflux, and bilateral periauricular skin tags. Here, we report a novel TLK2 variant and previously undescribed features of TLK2-related disorder, to expand the clinical phenotype and provide further genotype-phenotype correlation.

Keywords: TLK2; autism spectrum disorder; neurodevelopment.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics
  • Developmental Disabilities / pathology
  • Exome Sequencing
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability* / genetics
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders* / genetics
  • Phenotype