Implementation of an Evidence-Based Intervention with Safety Net Clinics to Improve Mammography Appointment Adherence Among Underserved Women

J Cancer Educ. 2023 Feb;38(1):309-318. doi: 10.1007/s13187-021-02116-w. Epub 2021 Nov 25.


The Peace of Mind Program is an evidence-based intervention to improve mammography appointment adherence in underserved women. The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of the intervention and implementation of the intervention in safety net clinics. The intervention was implemented through a non-randomized stepped wedge cluster hybrid study design with 19 Federally Qualified Health Centers and charity care clinics within the Greater Houston area. A multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression was conducted to examine mammography appointment adherence. A survey assessing Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs was also conducted with clinic staff prior to adoption and eight weeks post implementation. One-sided t-tests were conducted to analyze mean score changes between the surveys. A total of 4402 women (baseline period = 2078; intervention period = 2324) were included in the final regression analysis. Women in the intervention period were more likely to attend or reschedule their mammography appointment (OR = 1.30; p < 0.01) than those in the baseline period receiving usual care. Women who completed the intervention were more likely to attend or reschedule their mammography appointment than those who did not complete the intervention (OR = 1.62; p < 0.01). The mammography appointment no-show rates for those in the baseline period, in the intervention period, and who completed the intervention were, respectively, 22%, 19%, and 15%. A total of 15 clinics prior to adoption and eight clinics completed the survey at 8 weeks post implementation A statistically significant mean score decrease was observed in Inner Setting and in two Inner Setting CFIR constructs, Culture-Effort, and Implementation Climate. While the intervention improved mammography appointment adherence, there are opportunities to further integrate Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs. Trial registration: Clinical trials registration number: NCT02296177.

Keywords: Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research; Evidence-based intervention; Implementation science; Mammography adherence; Safety net clinics.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Care Facilities*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mammography
  • Research Design
  • Safety-net Providers*

Associated data