Effect of n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Body Weight in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of RCTs

Metabolites. 2021 Oct 28;11(11):742. doi: 10.3390/metabo11110742.


Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been reported. The objectives of this current research were to investigate the effects of n-3 supplementation on metabolic factors, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Online databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched until 2021 to identify eligible articles. Thirty trials were included. The results showed that n-3 consumption can significantly reduce glycemic factors including fasting blood sugar (FBS) (-0.36 (-0.71 to -0.01)), glycated hemoglobulin (HbA1c) (-0.74 (-1.13 to -0.35)), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA.IR) (-0.58 (-1.13 to -0.03)). Furthermore, significant improvement in lipid profile including triglycerides (TG) (-0.27 (-0.37 to -0.18)), total cholesterol (-0.60 (-0.88 to -0.32)), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (-0.54 (-0.85 to -0.23)), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (0.60 (0.23 to 0.96)) levels were found in the present meta-analysis. The reduction in the inflammatory marker's tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (-0.13 (-0.75 to 0.48)) and c-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.72 (-1.70 to 0.27)), as well as weight (-0.09 (-0.24 to 0.07)) and BMI (-0.13 (-0.29 to 0.02)) were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the optimal dose and duration of n-3 consumption for patients with T2DM is 1000-2000 mg/d for more than 8 weeks. The present meta-analysis and review reveals that n-3 supplementation can improve glycemic factors and lipid profile in patients with T2DM. Furthermore, n-3 supplementation may provide beneficial effects on inflammatory markers and body weight if used at the appropriate dose and duration.

Keywords: BMI; T2DM; diabetes; glycemic control; meta-analysis; metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers; n-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA; randomized controlled trials RCTs; weight.