Structural Rearrangements of a Dodecameric Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase Isolated from a Marine Thermophilic Methanogen

Biomolecules. 2021 Nov 11;11(11):1679. doi: 10.3390/biom11111679.


Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) orchestrates the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids, an elementary reaction in prototrophic organisms as well as a valuable process in biotechnology. Bacterial KARIs belonging to class I organise as dimers or dodecamers and were intensively studied to understand their remarkable specificity towards NADH or NADPH, but also to develop antibiotics. Here, we present the first structural study on a KARI natively isolated from a methanogenic archaea. The dodecameric structure of 0.44-MDa was obtained in two different conformations, an open and close state refined to a resolution of 2.2-Å and 2.1-Å, respectively. These structures illustrate the conformational movement required for substrate and coenzyme binding. While the close state presents the complete NADP bound in front of a partially occupied Mg2+-site, the Mg2+-free open state contains a tartrate at the nicotinamide location and a bound NADP with the adenine-nicotinamide protruding out of the active site. Structural comparisons show a very high conservation of the active site environment and detailed analyses point towards few specific residues required for the dodecamerisation. These residues are not conserved in other dodecameric KARIs that stabilise their trimeric interface differently, suggesting that dodecamerisation, the cellular role of which is still unknown, might have occurred several times in the evolution of KARIs.

Keywords: X-ray crystallography; conformational rearrangement; ketol-acid reductoisomerases; methanogenic archaea; native purification; oligomerisation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Catalytic Domain
  • Coenzymes
  • Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase*
  • NADP


  • Coenzymes
  • NADP
  • Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase