Magnetometer-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Prostate Cancer: Rate of Lymph Node Involvement Compared with Radioisotope Marking

Cancers (Basel). 2021 Nov 20;13(22):5821. doi: 10.3390/cancers13225821.


Sentinel pelvic lymph node dissection (sPLND) enables the targeted removal of lymph nodes (LNs) bearing the highest metastasis risk. In prostate cancer (PCa), sPLND alone or combined with extended PLND (ePLND) reveals more LN metastases along with detecting sentinel LNs (SLNs) outside the conventional ePLND template. To overcome the disadvantages of radioisotope-guided sPLND in PCa treatment, magnetometer-guided sPLND applying superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a tracer was established. This retrospective study compared the nodal staging ability between magnetometer- and radioisotope-guided sPLNDs. We analyzed data of PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and magnetometer- (848 patients, 2015-2021) or radioisotope-guided (2092 patients, 2006-2015) sPLND. To reduce heterogeneity among cohorts, we performed propensity score matching and compared data considering sentinel nomogram-based probabilities for LN involvement (LNI). Magnetometer- and radioisotope-guided sPLNDs had SLN detection rates of 98.12% and 98.09%, respectively; the former detected more SLNs per patient. The LNI rates matched nomogram-based predictions in both techniques equally well. Approximately 7% of LN metastases were detected outside the conventional ePLND template. Thus, we confirmed the reliability of magnetometer-guided sPLND in nodal staging, with results comparable with or better than radioisotope-guided sPLND. Our findings highlight the importance of the sentinel technique for detecting LN metastases in PCa.

Keywords: lymphadenectomy; metastases; prostate cancer; radioisotopes; sentinel lymph node; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.