The study aims to determine the contribution of kinematic parameters to time to 5 m without underwater undulating and kicking. Eighteen male competitive swimmers started from three weighted positions and set the kick plate to positions 1-5. We used SwimPro cameras and the Dartfish© software. In the on-block phase, we found significant correlations (p < 0.01) between the front ankle angle and block time. The correlations between start phases were statistically significant (p < 0.01) between block time and rear ankle angle, respectively, to time to 2 m; rear knee angle and glide time; block time and time to 5 m; time to 2 m and time to 5 m; and flight distance and glide distance. The multiple regression analysis showed that the on-block phase and flight phase parameters, respectively, contributed 64% and 65% to the time to 5 m. The key block phase parameters included block time and rear knee angle. The key flight phase parameters determining time to 5 m included take-off angle and time to 2 m. The key parameters determining the performance to 5 m during the above-water phase include rear knee angle, block time, takeoff angle, and time to 2 m.
Keywords: biomechanics; kinematic analysis; start phase; starting platform.