Biomechanics of Additively Manufactured Metallic Scaffolds-A Review

Materials (Basel). 2021 Nov 12;14(22):6833. doi: 10.3390/ma14226833.


This review paper is related to the biomechanics of additively manufactured (AM) metallic scaffolds, in particular titanium alloy Ti6Al4V scaffolds. This is because Ti6Al4V has been identified as an ideal candidate for AM metallic scaffolds. The factors that affect the scaffold technology are the design, the material used to build the scaffold, and the fabrication process. This review paper includes thus a discussion on the design of Ti6A4V scaffolds in relation to how their behavior is affected by their cell shapes and porosities. This is followed by a discussion on the post treatment and mechanical characterization including in-vitro and in-vivo biomechanical studies. A review and discussion are also presented on the ongoing efforts to develop predictive tools to derive the relationships between structure, processing, properties and performance of powder-bed additive manufacturing of metals. This is a challenge when developing process computational models because the problem involves multi-physics and is of multi-scale in nature. Advantages, limitations, and future trends in AM scaffolds are finally discussed. AM is considered at the forefront of Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution. The market of scaffold technology will continue to boom because of the high demand for human tissue repair.

Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; biomechanics; metallic scaffolds; titanium alloy Ti6Al4V.

Publication types

  • Review