Microbial Fibrinolytic Enzymes as Anti-Thrombotics: Production, Characterisation and Prodigious Biopharmaceutical Applications

Pharmaceutics. 2021 Nov 5;13(11):1880. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13111880.


Cardiac disorders such as acute myocardial infarction, embolism and stroke are primarily attributed to excessive fibrin accumulation in the blood vessels, usually consequential in thrombosis. Numerous methodologies including the use of anti-coagulants, anti-platelet drugs, surgical operations and fibrinolytic enzymes are employed for the dissolution of fibrin clots and hence ameliorate thrombosis. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted much more attention in the management of cardiovascular disorders than typical anti-thrombotic strategies because of the undesirable after-effects and high expense of the latter. Fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasminogen activators and plasmin-like proteins hydrolyse thrombi with high efficacy with no significant after-effects and can be cost effectively produced on a large scale with a short generation time. However, the hunt for novel fibrinolytic enzymes necessitates complex purification stages, physiochemical and structural-functional attributes, which provide an insight into their mechanism of action. Besides, strain improvement and molecular technologies such as cloning, overexpression and the construction of genetically modified strains for the enhanced production of fibrinolytic enzymes significantly improve their thrombolytic potential. In addition, the unconventional applicability of some fibrinolytic enzymes paves their way for protein hydrolysis in addition to fibrin/thrombi, blood pressure regulation, anti-microbials, detergent additives for blood stain removal, preventing dental caries, anti-inflammatory and mucolytic expectorant agents. Therefore, this review article encompasses the production, biochemical/structure-function properties, thrombolytic potential and other surplus applications of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes.

Keywords: biopharmaceutical applications; characterisation; enzyme production; enzyme purification; microbial fibrinolytic enzymes; structural-functional attributes; thrombolytic potential.

Publication types

  • Review