Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite growing efforts for its early detection by screening populations at risk, the majority of lung cancer patients are still diagnosed in an advanced stage. The management of lung cancer has dramatically improved in the last decade and is no longer based on the "one-fits-all" paradigm or the general histological classification of non-small cell versus small cell lung cancer. Emerging options of targeted therapies and immunotherapies have shifted the management of lung cancer to a more personalized treatment approach, significantly influencing the clinical course and outcome of the disease. Molecular biomarkers have emerged as valuable tools in the prognosis and prediction of therapy response. In this review, we discuss the relevant biomarkers used in the clinical management of lung tumors, from diagnosis to prognosis. We also discuss promising new biomarkers, focusing on non-small cell lung cancer as the most abundant type of lung cancer.
Keywords: adenocarcinoma; biomarker; diagnosis; immunotherapy; lung cancer; prognosis; squamous cell lung cancer; targeted therapy.