Changing Features of COVID-19: Characteristics of Infections with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) and Alpha (B.1.1.7) Variants in Southern Italy

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Nov 18;9(11):1354. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9111354.


Differences in the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients infected with the Alpha and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in a large region of Southern Italy were assessed. Two cohorts of positive patients were compared. The Alpha group consisted of 11,135 subjects diagnosed between 21 March and 21 April 2021, and the Delta group consisted of 499 positive subjects diagnosed between 21 July and 21 August 2021. A descriptive and statistical analysis of the demographic and clinical characteristics of the two groups was performed. The proportion of patients with mild and moderate infections was significantly higher in the Delta than in the Alpha group (p < 0.001). In fully vaccinated patients, the proportion of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in the Delta than in the Alpha group. The Delta group showed odds ratios of 3.08 (95% CI, 2.55-3.72) for symptomatic infection and 2.66 (95% CI, 1.76-3.94) for hospitalization. Improving COVID-19 vaccination rates is a priority, since infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has a significant impact on patient outcomes. Additional targeted prevention strategies such as social distancing, the use of masks in indoor settings irrespective of vaccination status, and the use of a sanitary passport could be crucial to contain further spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; Italy; SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant; SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant; epidemiology; hospitalization; surveillance.