Tourette syndrome results from a complex interaction between social-environmental factors, multiple genetic abnormalities, and neurotransmitter disturbances. This study is a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial using probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 as an intervention to examine if probiotics improve symptoms of children with Tourette syndrome. This study enrolled children aged 5 to 18 years old who fulfilled DSM-V diagnostic criteria for Tourette syndrome. Patients were assessed before initiating the trial, at one month, and at two months after randomization. The primary outcome was evaluated by Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), and the secondary outcome studied the possible comorbidities in these children. The results revealed no significant difference in improvement in YGTSS between the control group and the PS128 group. As for secondary endpoints, an analysis of Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) showed improvement in commission and detectability in the PS128 group. In conclusion, although probiotics may not have tic-reducing effects in children with Tourette syndrome, it may have benefits on comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of probiotics on the comorbidities of Tourette syndrome children.
Keywords: Tourette syndrome; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; children; probiotics PS128; tics.