Childhood obesity rates have dramatically risen in numerous countries worldwide. Obesity is likely a factor in increased asthma risk, which is already one of the most widespread chronic respiratory pathologies. The pathogenic mechanism of asthma risk has still not yet been fully elucidated. Moreover, the role of obesity-related inflammation and pulmonary overreaction to environmental triggers, which ultimately result in asthma-like symptoms, and the importance of dietary characteristics is well recognized. Diet is an important adjustable element in the asthma development. Food-specific composition of the diet, in particular fat, sugar, and low-quality nutrients, is likely to promote the chronic inflammatory state seen in asthmatic patients with obesity. An unbalanced diet or supplementation as a way to control asthma more efficiently has been described. A personalized dietary intervention may improve respiratory symptoms and signs and therapeutic response. In this narrative review, we presented and discussed more recent literature on asthma associated with obesity among children, focusing on the risk of asthma among children with obesity, asthma as a result of obesity focusing on the role of adipose tissue as a mediator of systemic and local airway inflammation implicated in asthma regulation, and the impact of nutrition and nutrients in the development and treatment of asthma. Appropriate early nutritional intervention could possibly be critical in preventing and managing asthma associated with obesity among children.
Keywords: asthma; children; diet; nutrients; nutrition; obesity; pediatrics.