Milk Formula Diet Alters Bacterial and Host Protein Profile in Comparison to Human Milk Diet in Neonatal Piglet Model

Nutrients. 2021 Oct 22;13(11):3718. doi: 10.3390/nu13113718.


The metaproteome profiling of cecal contents collected from neonatal piglets fed pasteurized human milk (HM) or a dairy-based infant formula (MF) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 21 were assessed. At PND 21, a subset of piglets from each group (n = 11/group) were euthanized, and cecal contents were collected for further metaproteome analysis. Cecal microbiota composition showed predominantly more Firmicutes phyla and Lachnospiraceae family in the lumen of cecum of HM-fed piglets in comparison to the MF-fed group. Ruminococcus gnavus was the most abundant species from the Firmicutes phyla in the cecal contents of the HM-fed piglets at 21 days of age. A greater number of expressed proteins were identified in the cecal contents of the HM-fed piglets relative to the MF-fed piglets. Greater abundances of proteins potentially expressed by Bacteroides spp. such as glycoside enzymes were noted in the cecal lumen of HM-fed piglets relative to the MF. Additionally, lyases associated with Lachnospiraceae family were abundant in the cecum of the HM group relative to the MF group. Overall, our findings indicate that neonatal diet impacts the gut bacterial taxa and microbial proteins prior to weaning. The metaproteomics data were deposited into PRIDE, PXD025432 and 10.6019/PXD025432.

Keywords: intestinal; metaproteome; microbiota; neonates.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Cecum / microbiology
  • Diet*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Infant Formula*
  • Milk, Human
  • Models, Animal
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Proteomics*
  • Swine


  • Proteome