Oral Magnesium Supplementation for Treating Glucose Metabolism Parameters in People with or at Risk of Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

Nutrients. 2021 Nov 15;13(11):4074. doi: 10.3390/nu13114074.


There is a large and growing body of literature focusing on the use of oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation for improving glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters in participants with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes, compared with a placebo. Several databases were searched investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs placebo in patients with diabetes or conditions at high risk of diabetes. Data were reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using follow-up data of glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters. Compared with placebo, Mg supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose in people with diabetes. In people at high risk of diabetes, Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose per se, and after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, Mg supplementation demonstrated an improvement in insulin sensitivity markers. In conclusion, Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes. Moreover, our work indicates that Mg supplementation may improve insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes; glucose; magnesium; meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Magnesium