Eosinophilic leukocytosis can be attributed to a number of clinical conditions such as parasitic infection, allergies, and neoplasms. Parasitic infection is the main cause of eosinophilia; however, a marked leukocytosis with hypereosinophilia secondary to Trichuris trichiura in adults has not been previously reported. We describe a case of a 39-year-old man who presented with fever and diarrhea. The investigation revealed a white blood cell (WBC) count of 20.69 × 109/L with an absolute eosinophil count of 12.44 × 109/L. Fecal microscopic examination demonstrated T. trichuria eggs. The WBC count returned to normal following treatment with albendazole. The literature pertaining to hematological findings associated with Trichuris trichiura is explored in this report. This case highlights that a significant elevation of leukocyte count with hypereosinophilia can be one of the manifestations of trichuriasis infection in adults. Empirical treatment with anti-helminthic agents may play a role in suspected cases to avoid severe complications, such as Trichuris dysentery syndrome.
Keywords: Trichuris trichiura; adult; hypereosinophilia; leukocytosis.