Assessment of lipophilic fluorescence products in β-amyloid-induced cognitive decline: A parallel track in hippocampus, CSF, plasma and erythrocytes

Exp Gerontol. 2022 Jan;157:111645. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2021.111645. Epub 2021 Nov 27.


Background: Oxidative stress implicates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology, and associates with the creation of end products of free radical reactions, are known as lipophilic fluorescent products (LFPs). This study aimed to evaluate the probable parallel alterations in the spectral properties of the LFPs in the hippocampus tissues, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma, and erythrocytes during AD model induction by intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) amyloid β-protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ) injection.

Methods: Male rats received an intra-ICV injection of Aβ. Hippocampus, CSF, plasma, and erythrocytes were harvested at 5, 14, and 21 days after Aβ injection. The fluorescent intensity of LFPs was assessed by spectrofluorimetry using synchronous fluorescence spectra 25 (SYN 25) and 50 (SYN 50) in the range of 250-500 nm. Hippocampal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also measured. Cognitive alterations were evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test.

Results: The parallel significant rise in the fluorescence intensity of LFPs was detected in the hippocampus, CSF, plasma, and erythrocytes, 14, and 21 days after ICV-Aβ injection. These alterations were found in both types of synchronous spectra 25, and 50, and were coincided with hippocampal cognitive decline, the MDA rise, and decrease of SOD activity. There was a positive correlation between hippocampus homogenate, and plasma or CSF rise in fluorescence intensity.

Conclusion: Data showed that the Aβ increased hippocampal MDA, and decreased SOD activity, led to a higher rate of oxidative products and subsequently resulted in an increase in LFPs fluorescence intensity during the development of cognitive decline. LFPs' alterations reflect a comprehensive view of tissue redox status. The fluorescence properties of LFPs indicate their composition, which may pave the way to trace the different pathological states.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Lipophilic fluorescent products; Malondialdehyde; Morris water maze; Redox status; Superoxide dismutase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease*
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Cognitive Dysfunction*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Erythrocytes
  • Hippocampus
  • Male
  • Maze Learning
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Rats


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Peptide Fragments