Putative regulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by catestatin

Trends Immunol. 2022 Jan;43(1):41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2021.11.002. Epub 2021 Nov 27.


Catestatin (CST) is a bioactive cleavage product of the neuroendocrine prohormone chromogranin A (CgA). Recent findings show that CST can exert anti-inflammatory and antiadrenergic effects by suppressing the inflammatory actions of mammalian macrophages. However, recent findings also suggest that macrophages themselves are major CST producers. Here, we hypothesize that macrophages produce CST in an inflammation-dependent manner and thereby might self-regulate inflammation in an autocrine fashion. CST is associated with pathological conditions hallmarked by chronic inflammation, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders. Since intraperitoneal injection of CST in mouse models of diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease has been reported to be beneficial for mitigating disease, we posit that CST should be further investigated as a candidate target for treating certain inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory; catestatin; chromogranin A; macrophages; neuroendocrine activity; neuroimmunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromogranin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation*
  • Macrophages
  • Mammals
  • Mice
  • Peptide Fragments*


  • Chromogranin A
  • Peptide Fragments
  • chromogranin A (344-364)