Contraceptive technology research & development: a call for inclusion of trans and gender diverse individuals assigned female at birth

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2022 Apr;27(2):142-147. doi: 10.1080/13625187.2021.2000960. Epub 2021 Nov 30.


Objective: Increased research efforts over the past decade provide a more in-depth understanding of the diverse fertility desires and family planning needs of trans and gender diverse individuals assigned female at birth (TGD AFAB). Despite this increased understanding and unmet need, global health researchers and contraceptive product developers have yet to include TGD AFAB individuals and considerations of their needs in the product development process, marginalising this historically underrepresented population. The aim of this perspective is to present the case for inclusion of TGD AFAB individuals in contraceptive research.

Main outcomes: This perspective summarises the most recent literature characterising contraceptive access and use within TGD AFAB populations as well as the barriers to use. Furthermore, this perspective offers insight into how novel contraceptive technologies in the research and development pipeline could potentially appeal to TGD AFAB populations and recommends steps product developers can make towards being more inclusive.

Conclusions: With current research efforts in contraceptive product development aimed at expanding the method mix to appeal to a more diverse population of potential users, it behoves product developers to be more inclusive of TGD AFAB individuals in the development process and consider them as stakeholders of an expanded contraceptive method mix.

Keywords: Family planning; contraception; reproductive health; research and development; trans health.

MeSH terms

  • Contraception*
  • Contraceptive Agents*
  • Contraceptive Devices
  • Family Planning Services
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Technology


  • Contraceptive Agents