Fruit Derived Potentially Bioactive Bioengineered Silver Nanoparticles

Int J Nanomedicine. 2021 Nov 18:16:7711-7726. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S330763. eCollection 2021.


Introduction: Protein-derived biogenic syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles have gained immense attention because of their broad spectrum of applications. Proteins offer a reducing environment to enable the synthesis of nanoparticles and encapsulate synthesized nanoparticles and provide them temporal stability in addition to biocompatibility.

Methods: In the present study, Benincasa hispida fruit proteins were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C over five days of incubation. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, zeta potential, and DLS analyses. Further, these NPs depicted antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Additionally, the anticancer activities of nanoparticles were also tested against the lung cancer cell line (A549) with respect to the normal cell line (NRK) using MTT assay. Further, the estimation of ROS generation through DCFH-DA staining along with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mito Tracker Red CMX staining was carried out. Moreover, nuclear degradation in the AgNPs treated cells was cross-checked by DAPI staining.

Results: The average size of AgNPs was detected to be 27 ±1 nm by TEM analysis, whereas surface encapsulation by protein was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric, and Staphylococcus epidermis with MICs of 148.12 µg/mL, 165.63 µg/mL, 162.77 µg/mL, and 124.88 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibit the formation of biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteric, and S. epidermis by 71.14%, 73.89%, 66.66%, and 64.81%, respectively. Similarly, these nanoparticles were also found to inhibit (IC50 = 57.11 µM) the lung cancer cell line (A549). At the same time, they were non-toxic against NRK cells up to a concentration of 200 µM.

Discussion: We successfully synthesized potentially potent antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer biogenic AgNPs.

Keywords: AgNPs; Benincasa hispida; antibacterial; antibiofilm; anticancer; green synthesis.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli
  • Fruit
  • Metal Nanoparticles*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Silver* / pharmacology
  • Staphylococcus aureus


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Silver