Background: Campylobacter spp. bacteremia is a severe infection. A nationwide 5-year retrospective study was conducted to characterize its clinical features and prognostic factors.
Methods: The study included patients with Campylobacter spp. bacteremia diagnosed in 37 French hospitals participating in the surveillance network of the National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters, from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019. The goal was to analyze the effects of a delay of appropriate antibiotic therapy and other risk factors on 30-day mortality rates, antibiotic resistance, patient characteristics, and prognosis according to the Campylobacter species.
Results: Among the 592 patients, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus were the most commonly identified species (in 42.9% and 42.6%, respectively). The patients were elderly (median age 68 years), and most had underlying conditions, mainly immunodepression (43.4%), hematologic cancers (25.9%), solid neoplasms (23%), and diabetes (22.3%). C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli were associated with gastrointestinal signs, and C. fetus was associated with secondary localizations. Among the 80 patients (13.5%) with secondary localizations, 12 had endocarditis, 38 vascular, 24 osteoarticular, and 9 ascitic fluid infections. The 30-day mortality rate was 11.7%, and an appropriate antibiotic treatment was independently associated with 30-day survival (odds ratio, 0.47 [95% confidence interval, .24-.93]; P = .03). The median efficient therapy initiation delay was quite short (2 days [interquartile range, 0-4 days]) but it had no significant impact on the 30-day mortality rate (P = .78).
Conclusions: Campylobacter spp. bacteremia mainly occurred in elderly immunocompromised individuals with variable clinical presentations according to the species involved. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy was associated with improved 30-day survival.
Keywords: Campylobacter spp; bacteremia; immunosuppression; zoonosis.
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