Use of the EpiDermTM 3D reconstructed skin micronucleus assay for fragrance materials

Mutagenesis. 2022 May 4;37(2):89-111. doi: 10.1093/mutage/geab040.


In order to evaluate the utility of the 3D reconstructed skin micronucleus assay (3DRSMN) to assess clastogenic/aneugenic potential of the fragrance chemicals, a set of 22 fragrance materials were evaluated in 3DRSMN assay. These materials evaluated were also evaluated in an in vitro as well as in vivo micronucleus assay, conducted as per Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. The results of the RSMN assay were in 100% agreement with the in vivo micronucleus assay results. From this dataset, 18 materials were positive in an in vitro micronucleus assay but were negative in an in vivo micronucleus assay. All these 18 materials were also concluded to be negative in 3DRSMN assay, stressing the importance of the assay to help minimize misleading positive outcomes from the in vitro assay. Since the highest exposure for fragrances is through the dermal route, the RSMN assay fits the applicability domain for testing. Thus, RSMN assay is an important alternative to animal testing for characterization of the genotoxicity potential of fragrance materials.

Keywords: 3DRSMN; animal alternative; fragrance materials; genotoxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Damage
  • Micronucleus Tests / methods
  • Mutagens / toxicity
  • Odorants*
  • Skin*


  • Mutagens