Gender differences in the microbial spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens isolated from patients with urinary stones

J Clin Lab Anal. 2022 Jan;36(1):e24155. doi: 10.1002/jcla.24155. Epub 2021 Dec 2.


Purpose: The characteristics and resistance patterns of urine bacteriology urolithiasis patients between male and female have not been extensively studied. This study aims to investigate the gender differences in microbial spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens isolated from urolithiasis patients and provide insights for appropriate antimicrobial therapies.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively collected clinical microbiology data from urine culture in urolithiasis patients between March 2014 and December 2018 in Xiangya Hospital. Then the patients were divided into male and female groups. The microbial spectrum and frequency of susceptibility to antibiotics were compared.

Results: A total of 359 uropathogen isolates were collected from 335 patients, including 144 males (43.0%) and 191 females (57.0%). E. coli dominated in both groups, indicating higher frequency in females (53.2%) than in males (26.6%, p < 0.001), followed by E. faecalis, with higher frequency in males (15.6%) than in females (2.9%, p < 0.001). Major Gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria showed high sensitivity to cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefotetan, piperacillin/ tazobactam, and amikacin. In contrast, the resistance level was high to penicillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin in both groups. Gram-positive (E. faecalis and E. faecium) isolates demonstrated high sensitivity to gentamicin and vancomycin in both groups. Furthermore, uropathogens isolated from female urolithiasis patients were more susceptible to antimicrobials than males.

Conclusions: Uropathogen microbial spectrum in female urolithiasis patients is different from males. High susceptibility antibiotics should be used empirically according to gender to avoid multidrug-resistant bacteria increase.

Keywords: antibiotics susceptibility; bacterial spectrum; gender; urinary stones; urinary tract infection.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / microbiology
  • Urolithiasis* / epidemiology
  • Urolithiasis* / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents