Night work increases diabetes risk. Misalignment between the central circadian “clock” and daily behaviors, typical in night workers, impairs glucose tolerance, likely due to internal misalignment between central and peripheral circadian rhythms. Whether appropriate circadian alignment of eating can prevent internal circadian misalignment and glucose intolerance is unknown. In a 14-day circadian paradigm, we assessed glycemic control during simulated night work with either nighttime or daytime eating. Assessment of central (body temperature) and peripheral (glucose and insulin) endogenous circadian rhythms happened during constant routine protocols before and after simulated night work. Nighttime eating led to misalignment between central and peripheral (glucose) endogenous circadian rhythms and impaired glucose tolerance, whereas restricting meals to daytime prevented it. These findings offer a behavioral approach to preventing glucose intolerance in shift workers.