Antimicrobial Pharmacotherapy Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients

J Pharm Technol. 2018 Apr;34(2):62-81. doi: 10.1177/8755122518755402. Epub 2018 Jan 31.


Objective: To discuss the risk factors, microbial resistance rates, and pharmacotherapy, including antimicrobial choices and medication dosage regimens, for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients. Data Sources: A MEDLINE literature search (1985 to December 2017) was performed using the following keywords and associated medical subject headings: urinary tract infection, antimicrobial, treatment, and children. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Search was conducted to identify clinical trials, systematic reviews, and guidelines. Search was filtered to include studies with age range between birth and 18 years and published in English. Additional references were identified from selected review articles. Data Synthesis: In total, 27 studies investigating microbial resistance, 31 studies assessing antimicrobial efficacy, 34 studies describing prophylaxis, and 6 systematic reviews were included. The resistance patterns differed across age groups and affected the choice of empirical therapy. If pyelonephritis is suspected, empiric antimicrobials should have high urinary and sufficient parenchymal concentrations. Nitrofurantoin has low microbial resistance rates and can generally be used empirically for treating uncomplicated cystitis in children >1 month of age. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance has increased and should be avoided unless local susceptibility data are available. Certain patients with recurrent UTIs or renal abnormalities may require antimicrobial prophylaxis, which may be associated with adverse effects, such as intolerability or an increased risk of microbial resistance. Conclusion: The resistance pattern of uropathogens should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Controlled trials with large samples are needed to compare the treatment duration of various antimicrobial regimens and the specific role of prophylactic antimicrobials.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance; disease management; pediatrics; prophylaxis; urinary tract infections.

Publication types

  • Review