Background: The study evaluates how obesity grade is associated with age during the first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and examines the effect of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the age of first ACS in patients with severe obesity.
Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with first episode of ACS between 2014 and 2019, and categorized them by body mass indices (BMI). Severe obesity was defined as BMI ≥35 kg/m2. Independent variables affecting the age of first ACS were examined by linear regression analysis.
Results: A total of 1005 patients (mean age, 57.5 ± 12.3 years; 19.3% female) were included. Approximately 6% and 12% of obese patients and normal weight patients had no other risk factors. Patients with ACS with severe obesity were younger than those with ACS in the grade-I obesity, overweight, and normal-weight groups (52.8 ± 9.9 vs. 55.3 ± 10.9, 56.8 ± 11.4, and 61.4 ± 14.2, respectively, p < 0.001). BMI had a strong, inverse linear relationship with earlier age of first ACS. The number of patients with no risk factors was significantly high in normal-weight individuals compared with patients with severe obesity (11.6% vs 5.6%, p = 0.037). After adjusting for CV risk factors, patients with overweight, grade-I obesity, and severe obesity may experience first ACS sooner than those with normal-weight by 3.9, 6.1, and 7.7 years, respectively (p < 0.001). However, males and females with severe obesity without CV risk factors experienced the first ACS episode 16 and 22 years later than those with the highest number of risk factors, respectively.
Conclusion: Patients with severe obesity experience first ACS episode 7.7 years earlier than those with normal-weight. Absence of CV risk factors in people with obesity can improve the potential negative effect of obesity on the ACS age.
Trial registration: NCT04578964, 08 October 2020.
Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Coronary artery disease; Obesity; Risk factor.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.