Association between race and in-hospital outcomes in children with spina bifida following inpatient urologic surgery

J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2021;14(4):597-604. doi: 10.3233/PRM-200699.


Purpose: Post-operative complication rates may vary among racial and/or ethnic groups and have not been previously described in individuals with spina bifida (SB) undergoing urologic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare in-hospital complication frequencies of individuals with SB following urologic surgery by race/ethnicity.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pediatric patients with SB who underwent inpatient urologic procedures. A pediatric cohort (<18 years old) with SB that underwent urologic surgery were assessed. All analyses report weighted descriptive statistics, outcomes, and race/ethnicity was the primary predictor variable. The primary outcome of interest was post-operative complications which were defined using NSQIP ICD-9 code definitions. Secondary analysis included length of stay (LOS), and encounter cost was estimated using the cost-to-charge ratio files provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.

Results: The unadjusted model showed no differences in complications, LOS, and cost. In the adjusted model there were no differences in complications, LOS, and cost between Black and White encounters. However, Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a 20%(95%CI: 4-40%) increase in LOS and 18%(95%CI: 2-35%, p = 0.02) increase in cost compared to White encounters.

Conclusion: There was no evidence of variation for in-hospital complication rates among racial/ethnic groups undergoing urologic surgery. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with higher costs and longer LOS in pediatric SB encounters.

Keywords: Spina bifida; complication; pediatric; surgery; urology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Inpatients*
  • Length of Stay
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Spinal Dysraphism* / complications
  • Spinal Dysraphism* / surgery