Immunohistochemical Expression of Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME) in the Uninvolved Background Testis, Germ Cell Neoplasia In Situ, and Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis

Am J Clin Pathol. 2022 May 4;157(5):644-648. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqab200.


Objectives: Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has a key role in regulating pluripotency of primordial germ cells and in the development of germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT). However, its immunohistochemical expression in normal testes and its neoplastic counterpart remain largely unknown.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated the expression of PRAME in 26 cases of GCTT, 21 cases of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), and 17 cases of uninvolved background testes.

Results: We found that PRAME was expressed more strongly by seminomatous rather than nonseminomatous GCTT (P = .000) and by pure seminoma rather than the seminoma component of seminomatous/nonseminomatous GCTT (P = .025). In addition, GCNIS and uninvolved background testes displayed high levels of PRAME expression.

Conclusions: PRAME is an additional marker for the differential diagnosis of GCTT and could play a key role in the transition from seminomatous to nonseminomatous GCTT.

Keywords: Germ cell neoplasia in situ; Germ cell tumors of the testis; PRAME; Reprogramming; Seminoma.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Melanoma* / pathology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Seminoma* / metabolism
  • Seminoma* / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Testis / pathology


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • PRAME protein, human

Supplementary concepts

  • Testicular Germ Cell Tumor