15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) is a nonheme iron-containing dioxygenase that has both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in many tissues and disease states. 15-LO is thought to influence macrophage phenotype, and silencing 15-LO reduces fibrosis after acute inflammatory triggers. The goal of the present study was to determine whether altering 15-LO expression influences inflammation and fibrogenesis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). C57BL/6J mice, 15-LO knockout (Alox15-/-) mice, and 15-LO transgenic overexpressing (15LOTG) mice were subjected UUO, and kidneys were analyzed at 3, 10, and 14 days postinjury. Histology for fibrosis, inflammation, cytokine quantification, flow cytometry, and metabolomics were performed on injured tissues and controls. PD146176, a specific 15-LO inhibitor, was used to complement experiments involving knockout animals. Compared with wild-type animals undergoing UUO, Alox15-/- mouse kidneys had less proinflammatory, profibrotic message along with less fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. PD146176 inhibited 15-LO and resulted in reduced fibrosis and macrophage infiltration similar to Alox15-/- mice. Flow cytometry revealed that Alox15-/- UUO-injured kidneys had a dynamic change in macrophage phenotype, with an early blunting of CD11bHiLy6CHi "M1" macrophages and an increase in anti-inflammatory CD11bHiLy6CInt "M2c" macrophages and reduced expression of the fractalkine receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1. Many of these findings were reversed when UUO was performed on 15LOTG mice. Metabolomics analysis revealed that wild-type kidneys developed a glycolytic shift postinjury, while Alox15-/- kidneys exhibited increased oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, 15-LO manipulation by genetic or pharmacological means induces dynamic changes in the inflammatory microenvironment in the UUO model and appears to be critical in the progression of UUO-induced fibrosis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) has both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions in leukocytes, and its role in kidney injury and repair is unexplored. Our study showed that 15-LO worsens inflammation and fibrosis in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease using genetic and pharmacological manipulation. Silencing 15-LO promotes an increase in M2c-like wound-healing macrophages in the kidney and alters kidney metabolism globally, protecting against anaerobic glycolysis after injury.
Keywords: eicosanoids; fibrosis; lipoxygenase; macrophage; metabolism.