Infective endocarditis: Role of molecular techniques in early diagnosis

Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Dec;28(12):6844-6852. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.07.060. Epub 2021 Jul 29.


Infective endocarditis (IE), a heart valve infection primarily caused by bacteria such as streptococci or staphylococci, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the long-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, the infection is often difficult to manage. The latest diagnostic modalities for IE are discussed in this study. Blood culture use in pathogen identification can lead to loss of precious time as well as generation of false negative reports. The first steps in diagnosis are blood cultures and echocardiography, but molecular techniques can be extremely useful and may be used for an accurate and early diagnosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Infective endocarditis; Molecular techniques; Pathogens.

Publication types

  • Review