High-Quality Genome-Scale Reconstruction of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

Front Microbiol. 2021 Nov 15:12:750206. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.750206. eCollection 2021.


Corynebacterium glutamicum belongs to the microbes of enormous biotechnological relevance. In particular, its strain ATCC 13032 is a widely used producer of L-amino acids at an industrial scale. Its apparent robustness also turns it into a favorable platform host for a wide range of further compounds, mainly because of emerging bio-based economies. A deep understanding of the biochemical processes in C. glutamicum is essential for a sustainable enhancement of the microbe's productivity. Computational systems biology has the potential to provide a valuable basis for driving metabolic engineering and biotechnological advances, such as increased yields of healthy producer strains based on genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). Advanced reconstruction pipelines are now available that facilitate the reconstruction of GEMs and support their manual curation. This article presents iCGB21FR, an updated and unified GEM of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 with high quality regarding comprehensiveness and data standards, built with the latest modeling techniques and advanced reconstruction pipelines. It comprises 1042 metabolites, 1539 reactions, and 805 genes with detailed annotations and database cross-references. The model validation took place using different media and resulted in realistic growth rate predictions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The new GEM produces all canonical amino acids, and its phenotypic predictions are consistent with laboratory data. The in silico model proved fruitful in adding knowledge to the metabolism of C. glutamicum: iCGB21FR still produces L-glutamate with the knock-out of the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase, despite the common belief to be relevant for the amino acid's production. We conclude that integrating high standards into the reconstruction of GEMs facilitates replicating validated knowledge, closing knowledge gaps, and making it a useful basis for metabolic engineering. The model is freely available from BioModels Database under identifier MODEL2102050001.

Keywords: Corynebacterium glutamicum; FAIR; MEMOTE; constraint-based reconstruction; flux balance analysis; genome-scale metabolic model; metabolic engineering; optimization.