Patients without re-dislocation in the short term after arthroscopic knotless Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability may show residual apprehension and recurrence in the long term after 5 years

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2022 May;31(5):978-983. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2021.10.042. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Abstract

Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to report the long-term results, residual instability, and recurrence rate of arthroscopic Bankart repair surgery without a re-dislocation event in the first 5 years.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of Bankart repairs performed in a single center, by a single surgeon, with a minimum of 5 years' follow-up. Patients without a re-dislocation in the first 5 years of surgery were included. Patients who underwent open repair, those who underwent revision surgery, and those with critical glenoid bone loss were excluded. A total of 68 shoulders in 66 patients (51 male and 15 female patients) were included. Patients were analyzed in 2 domains: (1) failures defined as re-dislocation and (2) failures defined as apprehension and re-dislocation combined (residual instability). Clinical outcomes were assessed using shoulder range of motion, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score. Pain, residual apprehension, re-dislocations, and additional surgical procedures were recorded.

Results: The mean age of patients was 31.16 (range, 16-60 years), and the mean follow-up duration was 8.42 ± 2.1 years. The median number of dislocations was 3 (range, 1-20), and the median time from first dislocation to surgery was 16 months (interquartile range, 3-100.5 months). Five patients reported re-dislocations (7.4%) with a mean period of 6.54 ± 2.5 years (range, 5-10.8 years). Seven patients without re-dislocations and 2 patients with re-dislocations reported residual apprehension. Mean shoulder elevation and mean external rotation were 161.3° ± 12.4° and 39.2° ± 11°, respectively. The mean visual analog scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and WOSI scores were 0.5 ± 1.4, 91 ± 11.9, and 88 ± 12.1, respectively. Age was similar in patients with stable shoulders and those with shoulders with re-dislocation or residual instability. The WOSI score was lower in patients with re-dislocation and residual instability (P = .030 and P = .049, respectively).

Conclusions: Arthroscopic Bankart repair is a successful surgical option for anterior shoulder instability. The 7.4% re-dislocation rate after 5 years indicates there may be a deterioration of capsulolabral repair in certain patients. The long-term failure pattern may be underestimated in short- to mid-term projections.

Keywords: Bankart repair; Shoulder dislocation; outcome; recurrence; shoulder arthroscopy; shoulder instability.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arthroscopy / methods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Joint Dislocations* / surgery
  • Joint Instability* / surgery
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shoulder
  • Shoulder Dislocation* / surgery
  • Shoulder Joint* / surgery
  • Young Adult