Association between intimate partner violence and male alcohol use and the receipt of perinatal care: Evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2011-2016

PLoS One. 2021 Dec 7;16(12):e0259980. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0259980. eCollection 2021.


The utilization of perinatal care services among women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and male alcohol use is a major problem. Adequate and regular perinatal care is essential through the continuum of pregnancy to mitigate pregnancy and birth complications. The aim of this study is to determine the association between IPV and male alcohol use and the receipt of perinatal care in Nepal. This study used pooled data from 2011 and 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS). A total of 3067 women who interviewed for domestic violence module and had most recent live birth 5 years prior surveys were included in the analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between IPV and male alcohol use and the receipt of perinatal care. Of the total women interviewed, 22% reported physical violence, 14% emotional violence, and 11% sexual violence. Women who were exposed to physical violence were significantly more likely to report non-usage of institutional delivery [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.30 (95% Cl: 1.01, 1.68)] and skilled delivery assistants [aOR = 1.43 (95% Cl: 1.10, 1.88)]. Non-attendance of 4 or more skilled antenatal care visits was associated with a combination of alcohol use by male partner and exposure to emotional [aOR = 1.42 (95% Cl: 1.01, 2.00)] and physical violence [aOR = 1.39 (95% Cl: 1.03, 1.88)]. The negative association between IPV and perinatal care suggests it is essential to develop comprehensive community-based interventions which integrates IPV support services with other health services to increase the uptake of perinatal care through the continuum of pregnancy.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / epidemiology*
  • Emotional Abuse / psychology
  • Emotional Abuse / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intimate Partner Violence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Maternal Health Services
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Perinatal Care
  • Physical Abuse / psychology
  • Physical Abuse / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Sex Offenses / psychology
  • Sex Offenses / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult

Grants and funding

The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.