Careful histopathologic examination remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis of the clinically and biologically heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies. However, recent advances in genomic and epigenomic characterization using high-throughput technologies have significantly improved our understanding of these tumors. Although no single genomic alteration is completely specific for a lymphoma entity, some alterations are highly recurrent in certain entities and thus can provide complementary diagnostic information when integrated in the hematopathological diagnostic workup. Moreover, other alterations may provide important information regarding the clinical course, that is, prognostic or risk-stratifying markers, or response to treatment, that is, predictive markers, which may allow tailoring of the patient's treatment based on (epi)genetic characteristics. In this review, we will focus on clinically relevant diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers identified in more common types of B-cell malignancies, and discuss how diagnostic assays designed for comprehensive molecular profiling may pave the way for the implementation of precision diagnostics/medicine approaches. We will also discuss future directions in this rapidly evolving field, including the application of single-cell sequencing and other omics technologies, to decipher clonal dynamics and evolution in lymphoid malignancies.
Keywords: (epi)genetics; biomarkers; comprehensive molecular profiling; lymphoid malignancies; precision medicine; single-cell sequencing.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.