Organoids mimic the physiologic and pathologic events of organs. However, no consensus on esophageal organoid (EO) culture methods has been reached. Moreover, organoid models reproducing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) initiation have been unavailable. Herein, we sought to develop an esophageal minimum essential organoid culture medium (E-MEOM) for culturing murine EOs and establishing an early ESCC model. We formulated E-MEOM to grow EOs from a single cell with clonal expansion, maintenance, and passage. We found that EOs cultured in E-MEOM were equivalent to the esophageal epithelium by histological analysis and transcriptomic study. Trp53 knockout and Kras G12D expression in EOs induced the development of esophageal squamous neoplasia, an early lesion of ESCC. Here we propose the new formula for EO culture with minimum components and the organoid model recapitulating ESCC initiation, laying the foundation for ESCC research and drug discovery.
Keywords: Biological sciences research methodologies; Cancer; Methodology in biological science.