Updates in childhood Sjogren's syndrome

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Apr 1;34(2):217-222. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001093.


Purpose of review: Childhood Sjogren's syndrome (cSS) is a rare, chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the exocrine glands. cSS is underrecognized because of differences in clinical presentation compared with adults. Until recently, publications describing clinical manifestations in cSS were limited to case reports and case series with small numbers of patients. Diagnostic studies to assess glandular symptoms in adults, are less commonly obtained in children.

Recent findings: Recent cohort studies describe presenting diagnostic clinical features in large populations of cSS and demonstrate how current classification criteria, used in adults, are not applicable to children. Recurrent parotitis is the consistent predominant manifestation that is inversely correlated with age. Novel salivary biomarkers and salivary gland ultrasonography are important objective measure, which may improve diagnosis and disease monitoring. Standardized treatment recommendations are needed.

Summary: Findings from large cohort studies provide a framework for the future development of diagnostic criteria for cSS. Such criteria should incorporate objective measures that are easily obtained in children. Future research to improve understanding of the application of novel biomarkers and imaging and developing consensus on treatment recommendations is needed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoimmune Diseases*
  • Biomarkers
  • Child
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Parotitis* / diagnosis
  • Parotitis* / etiology
  • Rare Diseases
  • Salivary Glands
  • Sjogren's Syndrome* / complications
  • Sjogren's Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Sjogren's Syndrome* / therapy


  • Biomarkers